Hexachlorobutadiene is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the U.S. HCBD is genotoxic in mammalian cell cultures and binds with DNA in rats and mice in vivo. Studies in animals show a selective adverse effect of HCBD on the kidney, specifically the proximal tubule.
HCDB accumulates in brain tissue and is neurotoxic in animal studies. HCBD caused reproductive and developmental effects at oral doses that were neurotoxic and damaged the kidney of the mothers.
Where is it found and how is it used?
There are no natural sources of HCBD. HCBD is generated as a by-product during the production of certain chemicals. Most notably, HCBD is found as a contaminant at very low levels in certain chlorinated solvents which are imported and used in North America. As a result, it may be released upon the use of these chemicals. Other possible releases of HCBD in the environment could be from hazardous landfill leachate. Long-range transport may also contribute to its presence in the environment. Furthermore there has been smll percentages found in water and food may be contaminated with HCBD via environmental sources or by contact with the same contaminated water during food processing activity. Concentrations of HCBD in fish have been reported in multiple studies as well. HCBD was detected in fish at 3% of the 362 sites sampled.
What are the effects?
When HCBD is released into the environment, it tends to persist in the air, soil or water to which it was released and can accumulate in organisms. It can affect the growth and survival of aquatic organisms, notably those found in sediments.
These effects can be increased for toddlers, infants and children. The primary target organ for HCBD is the kidney.
- Progressive events over time include changes in kidney weight, renal tubular degeneration(Kills cells) and regeneration, hyperplasia (enlargement of an organ), focal adenomatous ( benign tumor of glandular tissue) proliferation, and renal tumor formation. One subacute inhalation study also found enlarged adrenals and degeneration of adrenal cortex
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